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Βιορυθμός Ερωτήσεις & Απαντήσεις - Biorythmos

Useful Informations

Frequently Asked Questions & Answers

biorythmos / βιορυθμός

Topic#1: Diabetes

Question:

What is diabetes mellitus?

Answer:

Diabetes is a common term which describes several metabolic disorders. Diabetes is a condition in which the body produces little or no insulin or uses the insulin in a non-effective way. It is a frequent disease characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

Question:

Where does the term diabetes mellitus come from?

Answer:

The term 'diabetes' also known as 'diabetes mellitus' derives from the Greek verb 'diabeno' (pass) and it was initially used to describe the excretion of glucose into the urine. Diabetes drastically changes the way in which our body uses food. Insulin is found at the center of the problem. Insulin is a hormone which helps glucose enter the body cells to be used as an energy source. Diabetes is characterized by partial or total lack of insulin production. Insulin is normally produced by specific cells in the pancreas - a body organ responsible for the production of insulin - and other hormones involved in the metabolism of food. The most common types of diabetes are Diabetes Type 1 and Diabetes Type 2. In both types there is a lack or a reduced ability of the body to receive glucose from the blood and transfer it to the cells where it is used as an energy tank. Although the two types of diabetes constitute separate types of disease, they demonstrate a series of symptoms and complications which are common to the disease.

Question:

What are the symptoms of diabetes mellitus?

Answer:

The main symptoms of diabetes mellitus are the following:

polyuria (frequent urination)

polydipsia (increased thirst) and/ or polyphagia (increased hunger)

weight loss

fatigue

weakness

cramps

diabetic neuropathy

delayed healing of wounds

infections

Question:

Are there many people suffering from diabetes mellitus?

Answer:

In Greece there are about 900.000 diabetics, half of who are not on any medical treatment and only 250.000 of them have regulated the disease properly.

Question:

Does diabetes mellitus cause any complications?

Answer:

When the disease is not treated effectively it can lead to complications, such as:

heart disease

high blood pressure

stroke (macrovascular disease)

kidney failure

vision disorders

neurological disorders

diabetic foot ulcers and infections

Acceptance of the disease and training on how to manage it can lead to an effective treatment.

Question:

What is the Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pump CSII?

Answer:

The Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pump CSII is a small device with which we try to mimic the normal release of insulin by the pancreas.

Question:

Is the pump permanently attached on the body?

Answer:

The integrated catheter system for Continuous Insulin Infusion is attached to the body. The catheter and not the pump is replaced every 3 days. The pump can be placed in the pocket, the belt on the trousers or in special pockets used as accessories.

Question:

Is there a needle which remains in the body?

Answer:

There are several kinds of catheter systems for continuous insulin infusion which individually fit each person. In some of them a thin steel needle is used ( 6.8 or 10 mm length) whereas in other kinds the needle is used only as a guide for the correct insertion of the catheter (6 or 9 mm length).

Question:

How does it feel like to be constantly attached to something?

Answer:

When you wear something for the first time (a pair of shoes, a pair of glasses) at first you feel it more than later. This is also the case with the insulin pump. However, there are also times when it is very complicated to be connected to an insulin pump, e.g. when you shower, get dressed in the morning or try clothes on in a clothes shop. That is why Medtronic Minimed invented the Quick Release System that allows the people wearing the pump to disconnect from it quickly and easily for short periods of time.

Question:

Will I be able to wear the pump and continue with my daily routine?

Answer:

Yes! Everyone can continue with their usual daily routine and wear the insulin pump. The pump has many options which allow the person wearing it to individualize and adjust its use according to the individual needs and activities.

Question:

Do the insured participate financially in the cost for the Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pump CSII?

Answer:

The Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pump CSII is fully covered by the Social Insurance Institutes without the financial contribution of the insured, according to the Government Gazette B 3054-2012, Integrated Regulation for Health Care, after the approval of the Supreme Health Care Council of the Ministry of Health.

Question:

Do the insured participate financially in the cost of a purchase order for monthly disposables for the Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pump CSII?

Answer:

The monthly disposables for the Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pump CSII are supplied based on the needs of each patient, as described on the doctor’s certificate, and their cost is fully covered without any financial participation from the insured.

Topic#2: Respiratory Treatment

Question:

Who needs oxygen therapy?

Answer:

Question:

What Is oxygen therapy?

Answer:

Supplemental oxygen therapy has been prescribed to increase the level of oxygen in your blood. It may be ordered for short-term or long-term use. Oxygen is a medication and must be used exactly as your doctor has prescribed. It is not addictive and is used to improve the quality of your life. Oxygen is a clear, odourless, non-flammable gas. It does, however, support combustion (fire) and therefore you must follow the safety instructions provided by your Air Liquide Healthcare professional.

Question:

Which are the benefits of oxygen therapy?

Answer:

Studies have demonstrated that continuous supplemental oxygen: Relieves chronic and nocturnal hypoxia, Reduces elevated haematocrit, Decreases pulmonary vascular pressure.Improves exercise tolerance, Improves quality of life and brain function, May prevent the progression of pulmonary hypertension and subsequent cor-pulmonale, Improves survival rate.

Notice: All medical and therapeutic information and advice contained on this website is necessarily general in nature and may not be appropriate to your particular condition. Consequently, we caution all our readers that the information and advice contained on this website should be acted or relied upon only after consultation with your physician or health care professional.

Question:

What is a nebulizer?

Answer:

Nebulizer is a device used to administrate medication in the form of mist to the lungs.

Question:

How it works?

Answer:

When a person encounters restricted breathing, their bronchioles and alveoli become swollen and inflamed, making it difficult to breathe.
A nebulizer uses a small compressor to deliver air into a chamber attached to a mouthpiece or mask. Inside that chamber, medication is placed to be nebulized, which means the liquid medication - which is made up of small enough particles to be transferable to the smallest parts of the respiratory system - will be transformed into a mist which can then be inhaled into the lungs in order to treat inflammation.

Question:

What is sleep apnea?

Answer:

Sleep apnea is a condition where the pharyngeal muscles in the back and sides of your throat relax so much during the sleep that the breathing stops for some seconds. When this happens, the brain notices a lack of oxygen in blood, wakes you up just enough to tense the muscles and take a breath. Then you fall into a deeper sleep again and the cycle continues – usually without you even noticing.
The end result of sleep apnea is that you may suffer from a lack of sleep and oxygen and wake up exhausted. Your partner may also complain about your snoring. Some sleep apnea sufferers find themselves falling asleep at work or while driving.

Question:

Which types of sleep apnea exist?

Answer:

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): the most common – where the tissue of the throat closes over the airway, causing you to stop breathing.

Central sleep apnea: which is not as common as OSA – where the brain or nerves fail to signal the muscles that control breathing to initialize the circle of breath.

Complex sleep apnea: where obstructive and central sleep apnea occur together.

Question:

What are the symptoms?

Answer:

Sleep apnea has a range of symptoms. You may have sleep apnea if you have more than two or three of them:

Snoring: many sleep apnea patients are referred to the doctor because their snoring keeps their partner awake

Feeling sleepy during the day – some people seek treatment after they have fallen asleep while driving or at work

Poor concentration

Feeling depressed, irritable or moody

Suffering from a reduced sex drive or erectile dysfunction

Going to the toilet frequently at night

Nightmares

Question:

What should I do if I think I may have sleep apnea?

Answer:

Early detection and diagnosis are important when it comes to sleep apnea. For a start, it may be helpful to ask a partner, family members or friends if you snore loudly or have pauses in breathing during the night. They are usually the ones who notice it first. Other ways to assist self-detection include the quick and simple Stop-Bang Questionnaire to identify key risk factors, and recording yourself sleeping. If you suspect that you have sleep apnea, it is important to see your doctor as soon as possible. A diagnosis of sleep apnea can only be made with a sleep study, at a sleep clinic or at home with special equipment and specialized professionals.

Question:

What will the doctor evaluate?

Answer:

Your doctor will evaluate your symptoms and carry out a physical examination before deciding whether you should be referred to a sleep lab. The sleep specialist may ask about your symptoms and medical history. You will probably have to fill in a form - usually the Epworth Sleepiness Scale - about how sleepy you feel when awake. They may also measure your weight and your neck circumference and do some breathing tests. If you show symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea, the specialist will prescribe a sleep study to confirm the diagnosis.

Question:

What is a Volume-Pressure Ventilator?

answer:

The ventilator exerts positive pressure to unload the respiratory muscles or even replace them completely in case of a respiratory pump problem.

Question:

Which are the types of Ventilators?

Answer:

A positive pressure ventilator can be considered as a respiratory muscle that works in tandem with the other muscles of the respiratory system. Its application is intended to decrease the patient’s work of breathing by unloading the respiratory pump. Unlike the first, historically, ‘negative pressure ventilators’ that were based on the expansion of the chest (and inflow of air into the lungs) through negative pressure outside the chest, ‘positive pressure ventilators’ deliver air directly into the lungs through the nose or the mouth. Ventilators are divided into the following categories, based on their features.

Volume-Targeted Pressure Ventilators: Bi-level ventilators as described above, with the additional feature of volume regulation through differential pressure.

Pressure Volume Ventilators: The most advanced ventilators in the market that can employ various modes of ventilation to provide a given tidal volume with great accuracy. These ventilators are indicated for invasive ventilation.

Adaptive Servo-Ventilator (ASV): The aim of these ventilators is to normalize various anomalies in respiratory patterns (Cheyne Stokes) or reduce central sleep apnea episodes.

Question:

What is the difference between Invasive and Non-invasive ventilation?

Answer:

Invasive ventilation: Ventilation takes place via an endotracheal tube (tracheostomy) which bypasses the upper respiratory tract and delivers the tidal volume directly into the lungs. In this way, there is total control of the airflow without leakage and the doctor can accurately calculate the tidal volume or plateau pressure.

Non-invasive ventilation: The air is delivered to the airways via a facial, nasal, or oronasal mask. Choosing the right mask plays a significant role in the synchronization between the patient and the ventilator.

Question:

Which are the modes of ventilation?

Answer:

There are many ways in which a ventilator can deliver air into the lungs. Microprocessor technology is booming nowadays and modes of ventilation that are used in Intensive Care Units have almost reached the borders of artificial intelligence (AI). However, they are all based on the four fundamental modes of ventilation available in each ventilator.

Adaptive Pressure Ventilation (APV): In this mode, the ventilator delivers airflow to maintain a preset inspiratory pressure (IPAP) for a preset inspiratory time (Ti). The patient controls the rate of breathing and in case of apnoea, the ventilator takes over. This mode is used when we want to have complete control of ventilation while avoiding barotrauma. It is also indicated for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) due to its ability to compensate for mask leakage.

Pressure Support Ventilator (PSV): The ventilator delivers airflow to maintain a preset inspiratory pressure (IPAP) for as long as the patient requires. This mode, allows the patient to control the rate of breathing and in case of apnoea, the ventilator takes over. It is also indicated for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as it is patient-friendly and compensates for mask leakage.

Assist Control Ventilator (ACV): This mode is mainly used in invasive ventilation and in cases where we need to know with absolute accuracy the tidal volume of air being delivered. It is contraindicated for Non-invasive ventilation as it cannot compensate for mask leakage.

Topic#3: Nourishment – Malnutrition

Question:

What is poor nourishment / malnutrition?

Answer:

Malnutrition is defined as the reduction of the lean body mass in relation to sex, age, height and a person’s activities.

Question:

Does poor nourishment / malnutrition affect our body?

Answer:

Malnutrition affects all the organs of the human body and when it occurs in childhood, it has serious implications on the Central Nervous System (CNS). Depending on the severity of malnutrition morphological and functional disorders in various organs occur. Their clinical manifestation is severe and it relates to increased morbidity and mortality.

Question:

Is the condition of a poor nourishment / malnutrition often?

Answer:

People who severely suffer from dietary disorders run the risk of developing malnutrition, a complication which is often overlooked. The frequency of malnutrition during the admission to the hospital has been registered as 30% in all Europe. The majority of the patients consume on average less food than necessary and as a result they lose weight.

Question:

What causes a poor nourishment / malnutrition?

Answer:

Malnutrition is disease or illness related and its causes are many and they vary.

Question:

What are nutritional supplements?

Answer:

Nutritional Supplements are food formulas for special dietary use. Their special formulas fit the individual needs of each person.

Question:

How many categories of nutritional supplements exist?

Answer:

Nutritional Supplements are divided into two categories depending on the patient’s condition:

drinking supplements, and

supplements administered by a feeding tube.

Question:

Can I use any supplement I like?

Answer:

For the best possible results, you should use the most appropriate nutritional supplement which best covers your needs. The doctors and the dietary experts are responsible for the prescription of the supplements because they are familiar with the patient’s needs and the treatment that should be followed.

Question:

Do nutritional supplements have a pleasant taste?

Answer:

Yes! Expert scientists have managed to create nutritional supplements with natural aromas (cocoa, vanilla, forest fruit, orange etc.).

Topic#4: Stoma

Question:

When I return to work, do I have to tell my colleagues that a had a stoma operation?

Answer:

If you use a safe stoma system, nobody has to know that you have an artificial stoma, unless you want them to know. Your activities will remain the same.

Question:

Will I be able to travel after a stoma operation?

Answer:

As soon as you recover from the operation, the artificial stoma will not affect your travels. When you travel it is important to program. When you travel by plane you can carry the stoma disposables in your handbag. If you are away for a long period inform your supplier and he will send you the disposables to a different address. Remember to store your disposables in a cool, dry place.

Question:

Will I be able to exercise after a stoma operation?

Answer:

All doctors agree that exercise is very beneficial but it would be best to consult your doctor before you take up any type of exercise.

Question:

Will I be able to shower or take a bath like I used to before the stoma operation?

Answer:

As soon as the wounds are healed and your doctor gives you permission you will be able to shower or take a bath like before. You can have a bath or a shower with or without the bag, the choice is yours. If you take a bath without the bag, before applying the next stoma system make sure that your skin is dry and clean from any soap residues.

Question:

Will I be able to swim after a stoma operation?

Answer:

When your doctor says that you are able to return to your normal activities. People with an artificial stoma can enjoy all kinds of sport and activities. Before you start swimming it is best to empty your bag. Some people feel better when they wrap the ends of the skin protection base with waterproof tape.

Topic#5: Urinary Incontinence

Question:

What is intermittent catheterization?

Answer:

Intermittent Catheterization is the emptying of the bladder on specific periods of time with the use of a catheter. This can be achieved by the patient himself (intermittent self-catheterization) or by someone other (intermittent catheterization by others).

Question:

How will I learn about intermittent catheterizations?

Answer:

Intermittent catheterization is taught in hospitals or at home with the guidance of a healthcare expert. Women may have to use a mirror during the first months of catheterization in order to facilitate catheter insertion. The healthcare professional will supply the training material, such as booklets, instruction manuals and samples.

Question:

How often do I have to catheterize?

Answer:

People who use intermittent catheterizations as a method of emptying the bladder may need to catheterize four to six times per day. This depends on the amount of fluids you consume and on how efficiently your bladder empties.

Question:

What do I do during menstruation?

Answer:

Hygiene is very important during menstruation. Every time you catheterize you have to wash the area of the genital organs with neutral pH soap and you have to regularly change your tampon or sanitary towel.

Question:

Can I catheterize during pregnancy?

Answer:

Your doctor will give you instructions during the course of your pregnancy, however intermittent catheterizations are considered safe during pregnancy.

biorythmos / βιορυθμός

Ιατρικά Προϊόντα και Υπηρεσίες Υγείας

Επικοινωνία
info@biorythmos.gr
+30 2610 317218
Σατωβριάνδου 14, 26223, Πάτρα

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